Sunday, 15 January 2012


The imperial ancient kingdom “Vijayanagara”, its yet imperial capital “Hampi” in ruins and moulds today is a part of Karnataka State today. It is colossal, classic, wonderfully planned, keeping in mind its much needed security, prosperity, progress and total sovereignty. It is relevant to say, it is rarest of the rare bygone metropolis of the world. This exhaustive, exemplary, incredible and excellent political seat of power was first founded by illustrious “Sangama Dynasty’s” Harihara Raya and his four younger brothers, by names Booka Raya, Prince Marappa Raya, Keppanna Raya and Young prince Mudanna Raya. Present Indian History never gives us any account of the origin of this powerful dynasty. Historians also never liked to dig it out, it seems or else no one has sincerely tried over it, in a way and manner it should have been. It may be also true and convenient to say as Portuguese sadistic and fanatic regime was present here in Goa.They ruled Goa more than four hundred years. Their rule here virtually was with Sheer might and not with will, love and governing dignity. They were harsh administrators. After gaining power in Goa, they virtually shutdown every right enjoyed by citizens here. They also sealed Goa`s boundaries to other Indian territories, so it was very difficult for the historians to reach here. As far as for Goan historians, writing anything was a nightmare. Leave about scribing against Portuguese, you just could not write a letter to any Govt. Office even for your own grievances. Under such horrible scene it is hard to believe authors had not tried.

But the facts and truths, it is believed never go in hideout. It always comes on floor, a day or the other. This formidable “Sangma” Dynasty is truly originated from Goa`s Sangam or Sanguem Taluka. They were shepherds by caste, a cult with dignity and respect as prosperous people. They are called “Gavalis” here in Goa, “kurubal” in Kannada language and “Dhanagaras” in Maharashtra. To elaborate more about this highly placed class earlier in the history. Our family too belongs to this formidable class. It was as early as in A.D.1486 when pioneer person of this cult founded a new dynasty called “Tulu.” or Tulva Dynasty that ruled Vijayanagara kingdom from A.D. 1486 to 1565. The founder king being Naras Naik or Narsimha Deva. Though this king originally belonged to a cult by name “Kanneri Kurubal” but then he changed it to “Tulu or Tulva” Dynasty as they were talking “Tulu” Language. This language is a mixture of “Konkani”, “Marathi”and “Kannada” lipi widely spoken by shepherd cult in Goa, Maharashtra and Kannada. Later on I will discuss more about that, when it comes to their turn as kings of “Vijayanagara”. Presently talking more about “Sangma Dynasty” of Goa and particularly ofSangam taluka, Harihara Raya, the eldest brother of five Sangma`s, first founded his Sangma dynasty at “Anagond” presently a small village in Hospet taluka of Karnataka totally covered with green fields everywhere consisting of big trees. But minute scan over here reveals and explains its goneby perfection and glory even in bushes and moulds here, very near to present metropolis capital in ruins at “Hampi”. This “Anagond” was the first Capital from where Harihara the efficient ruled his erstwhile Vijayanagara kingdom. Earlier when in Goa these Sangma`s were the Chieftain at Sangam or Sanguem. The planning and Constructive skills of these chieftains were of high potential, here at Sanguem that can even today prove beyond doubt. They were also greatest of the designers and builders. Later on I will provide and explain some of their exemplary ruined perfections such as temples on hills and plains ruined buildings, and names of some canals and dams, where one can equate certain ruined cultures and few names of places and deities here at Sanguem and thereby at “Hampi” the imperial metropolis of famous Vijayanagara empire. It is enough fair with historical data, Sangma`s were the chieftains of a big piece of land, situated beneath the eye catching mountain ranges of “Western Ghats” called Sangam or Sanguem. They were shepherds (Govali).

Five Sangma brothers, Harihara Raya, Mudanna Raya,Bukka Raya, Keppanna Raya and Mudanna  Raya founded the new kingdom with every joint effort, fully hand in hand with their elder brother,  Harihara Raya, first at “Anagond” as their capital city to rule the big kingdom they named it,  “Vijayanagara” It means an empire that brings success to its every citizen. The founder king Harihara Raya assumed the throne in the year Anagond. And later on from 1357 to 1485 at super metropolis at “Hampi”. How the chieftains from Sangam Goa, reached Anagond, is a mysterious question to answer. But the anecdotal history here and there say without any clear note, the Sangma chieftain was fully helped by a famous spiritual saint by name Vidhyaranya. Please, do not mistake this saint to legendary and historical figure the graced icon Vidhyaranya who lived much earlier before Sangma Dynasty. The first mentioned cleric of Hinduism is a different character the then mentioned legend. The first mentioned saint Vidhyaranya while on his preaching mission, came in touch with Sangma brothers of Sanguem Taluka of Goa. Impressed by their living simplicity, social and religious status and more importantly their love towards poor and needy, the saint blessed them for a “Crown”.

He asked them to follow him. They respected the spiritual word of the saint and followed him, till they reached Anagond. Anagond is a place in Hospet Taluka of Bellary district of Karnataka State. It is very near or close to their later on metropolis Hampi. Here the godly saint showed these Sangma brothers a huge treasure. Please do not presume, Sangma`s were poor. Instead they had carried lot of treasure and other precious stones. This added to their more glory when they got this royal hidden treasure in addition. It is very important to know, his spiritual efficiency saint Vidhyaranya was a staunch devotee of “Kuruba”. It means goat god. Sangma brothers also belong to kurubal cult.(Govali). So it is relevant to understand the feelings of the saint, he needed or more so wished to have a kurubal Dynasty king to rule over Karnataka and other parts. Fortunately for his given wish, he found these four Sangma brothers for the work get done. This saint guided Sangma brothers offering every help in administration and day to day functioning of the newly emerged state with his full co-operation.

After assuming the throne at Anagond, which was a very small princedom earlier though full of agriculture and cattle wealth. Then prince Harihara with the help of his brave brothers extended his kingdom in leaps and bounds. He was a wise prince. He renamed his vast kingdom as “Vijayanagara” He then divided his kingdom among all his brothers although he himself always remained at the helm of affairs as a sovereign supreme king of vast Vijayanagara empire. According to his royal divisions prince Marappa crowned as a crown prince of western region. It consists of north Karnataka, Konkan including Goa and Karwar. Prince Kepanna ruled from eastern regions of Andhra Pradesh.Bukka Raya I ruled from central regions of Vijayanagara. So it is clear, his royal dignity Prince Marappa Raya, third brother of king Harihara of Sangma Dynasty. This fell first time in the checkered history of Goa that a prince of Goa origin became the ruler. He belonged to “Kurubal” cult. He ruled Goa and whole of Konkan efficiently during 2nd half of the A.D.1355. The seven kings of Sangma Dynasty, originated from Goa who ruled Vijayanagara as sovereign kings for nearly 150 years are as follows.

Harihara was a shepherd by cult. He hailed from Sangam taluka of Goa. Here in Goa as early as 1300A.D.he was a chieftain or a feudal leader under “Hoyasala Kings”. He was an efficient person. He under the spiritual advice of Vidhyaranya a saint, founded his own royal dynasty in A.D.1336. He named his kingdom by virtuous name “Vijayanagara” His state functioning style was based on his ancestral education and pattern. It was also based on modernity and glamour of the given time. He revised the knowledge branches of education everywhere in his kingdom. He patronized different languages, its literature. He upheld art culture and technoloy. In science, he never looked behind. He supported medical sphere, doctors, students and even herbal vaidyas. The reason why you can say, Hari- Hara it means evergreen king or lord. He minted his own spectacular coinage there by carving a “boar” as a royal symbol, depicting, his love towards animals and how much he respects them, regardless of its birth and lookouts. Carving a “boar” over his every coinage may have even some other reason. It is strongly even today believed, Lord Universe “Himself” had an incarnation as a “boar” with whose help then “Him”saved this earth from the immoral clutches by sinners. King Harihara was an overwhelming devotee of lord Universe. He also knew very well the meaning of minting coinage in to his kingdom. It passes every hand and heart of his people he wanted to popularise such spiritual boar for devotion. During his optimal rule as a pioneer king of Sangma Dynasty from A.D. 1336 to 1356. This valiant and efficient king the history says, planned and designed a new imperial city for his power of seat. This is the very city that came in to the light as an imperial metropolis as a capital of Vijayanagar and remained in grace for a long period of A.D. 1359 to A.D. 1565 under the Royal Crowns of 1) Sangma 2) Sulu or Salve 3) Tulu or Tulva dynasties.Though planned and resumed the construction work for new Capital City but then otherwise, king Harihara discharged his duty as a king from a small citadel in a small village called “Anagonda” situated very near to this new capital “Hampi”.The pioneer king during his formidable rule constructed many water canals, lakes, wells, tanks, dams, roads and temples. He also brought major portion of his kingdom under agriculture. History also indicates, King Harihara himself laid foundation stone for his dreamed capital. Unfortunately he died of his old age without a glance over his 'Kanneri' Hampi, he died in the year 1356 A.D.

BUKKA RAYA I  (1356 TO 1377 A.D.):
Bukka Raya I the younger brother of Harihara assumed the throne yet at “Anagond” citadel after the death of his elder brother Harihara in the same year. Scattered evidence in patches here and there certainly mention this king himself during his rule accomplished major portion of the city “Hampi”. He is considered as a father pillar of the metropolis here, which rose to a height as the finest cities in the world. He also extended his boundaries. He patronized water system throughout his empire. Education and cavalry also flourished during his rule. He believed in both Tiger and Goat. Tiger for not to hurt the goats and goats for he as well as his dynasty. He died in the year A.D. 1377.

HARIHARA RAYA (II) (1377 TO 1404 A.D.):
After the death of his paternal uncle Bukka Raya, Harihar Raya II assumed the throne in A.D 1377. Immediately started extending his empire. He conquered many kingdoms. He also continued the extension work of metropolis “ Hampi” Hemakuta Hill is a much eye-catching natural scenery at Hampi. It is full of big and small temples. Presently it seems here; these stones mutely witness the bygone myths and mystics. From below they seem, actors acting over heavenly stage. Hemkuta mountain is full of temples. Most of the credit for their constructions goes to Harihara Raya II. It is a sacred place with nature's stagedesigns. Harihara Raya II also was a musician , He loved music .

DEVARAYA I (1406 TO 1422A.D):
Devaraya I was a peace loving emperor. It should be given to his credit no one dared to challenge him nor he himself waged wars against others. By this optimal behaviour, he amassed huge treasure. It is a good example for modern day world. He too added to extension of his capital city Hampi. He is also responsible to install the two Ganesha monoliths
1) Sasuvekalu Ganesha , it means as small as mustard seed. Myths always lead you towards more mystics, you will find this Ganesha monolith is 2.4 mtrs high. It is carved out of a single boulder. It is seen seated in half posture.
2) Kadalekalu Ganesh, it is also a monolith. It is seated in a nice pillar supported small but attractive hall. This idol is 4.5 mts high.
Devaraya I passed away in A.D 1422.

Devaraya II (1422 TO 1440 A.D.):
Assumed the coveted Vijayanagara throne handful of treasure in A.D 1422. Unlike his father, he was a great warrior with gifted skill . He knew well, a king needs vernacular faith to perform. He must always carry a secular fabric behind him.He himself called him as sultan of Hinduraj. His ancestors as great pandavas of Mahabharata. During his rule, Muslims found a respectable place for them in the royal administration. Their “Koran” found a spiritual place in the Darbar Hall. He constructed roads, tanks,temples, mosques. He also patronized Muslim art and culture, along with the Hindu Dharm Shalas, he also constructed Muslim Dharma Shalas. Hazarirama temple is one of such good examples here. The richest formidable and more importantly a secular king died in A.D 1440. Unfortunately of course, Indian history never found a secular king of his calibre till this date honestly. He also stressed on constructing gopuras, it means townships in every populous segments of his kingdom.

This name is very famous in Goa. You will see many ancient temples with Mallikarjun the most active deities in Goa presides in these temples. Lord Mallikarjuna is none other than lord Shiva as it is in case of Virupaksha, the much devoted spirit by Vijayanagara kings and people , even today. The real lord  here in this temple is lord Shiva and not Mallikarjuna. It is clear, it is the name of temple by king  Mallikarjuna or may be by his fellow kings as his memorial. After hoyasla (Hosala) dynasty Vijayanagara’s all kings ruled Goa and konkan. The reason why we find many similar names with their dynasties. Mallikarjun Raya took the reigns of Vijayanagara empire a year later after the death of Devaraya II. He was also a peace loving king. Historians say, he was a weak king or rather the weakening of Vijayanagara followed his ascending over the throne as a king. But there is an evidence, he totally supported a powerful insurging force that threatened his own empire by name Naikas of  Bidar. He also defeated sultans of Deccan vast kingdom but this based on anecdotal tales. The hints are also available, he constructed all vithala temples including Mallikarjuna temples in his kingdom. He too was engaged with female folks. A poetess of his Darbar has said it. He died in the 1465 A.D.

No dynasty on earth lived forever. One day or the other one has to go behind curtains of musical  history. Sangma Dynasty is not an exception to this rule.Virupaksharaya the last of the emperors of
Sangma Dynasty that actually hailed from Sangam or Sanguem of Goa state. This optimal, octagonal dynasty as it is said although only seven kings show their presence as crown holders on their chronological order. Emperor Virupaksharaya was not a weak king although history defiantly says about it. But more for his own set back, he relied more upon his high profile officers. He offered a golden chance to one of his provincial governors by name Narasimharaya and offered him a powerful post only next to king himself. The post is known as “Dandanaika”. It means chief justice and head of the army. Later on Bahamani king waged war on Virupaksharaya in A.D.1484.This war gave unlimited powers to Dandanaika. He made best of that. He defeated Bahamani king in a bloody war. Dandanaika fought bravely. Being courageous he instantly entered in to the hearts of the people. He took benefit of it. He directly waged war against his king Virupaksharaya and defeated him in a bloodless coup. Befell this to Sangma Dynasty in A.D.1485. Prior to his defeat under some mysterious circumstances King Virupaksha constructed, Virupakshapura, a beautiful street, where he also constructed a monumental glamour by name “Virupaksha” Temple. Thousands of devotees visit this place everyday even today. It is considered as an active deity not only in Karnataka but in the whole of south India. The chariot of this deity here is tallest and big. It is fitted with huge and enormous wheels.

These are seven Sangma rulers who ruled Vijayanagara imperial kingdom for total number of 150 years i.e. from A.D.1336 to A.D. 1486. It is already mentioned above, this Sangma Dynasty derived its origin from Sangam or Sanguem taluka of Goa (Konkan). They belong to shepherd cult. History when it comes, it must come through proper stages and more importantly with basic sufficient evidence. Mentioning merely through concepts, added with fiction, based on already published books that cares  no proper historical facts will always lead miseries to literary avenue.

So it ought the prime duty of a historical author, first to collect evidence in access to stage his say through his script. But this is not an easy task although never impossible but very difficult except you must be directly linked to such a posterity that itself must be a part of history in his/her own way. Please understand me here, if you get a little information through your own family chart via anecdotes folk songs, coins, weapons, spiritual monoliths, devotional spirits and names of places around you that directly linked up to much needed timely history. So in order to place some comprehensive etymology through our ancestors, it is relevant to know something about my own family chart tree. I belong to Kanneri Kurubal cult. Later on the same was called as “Tulu or Tulva Dynasty”. My ancestral name is Ganesh Krishna Naik (Ganesh it means Naganna) in Kannada lipi. My father Krishna Ganesh Naik and his father Ganesha Kusta Naik (Krishna is a tutelage name for Kusta).This chronology of names even today’s generation in our family continues with formal respect. While writing this history book there is no hidden agenda or any personal fiction for personal gains. The undermentioned anecdotal songs on our family that are sung for their valour by our villagers and others. They are still in practice during important religious, cultural and social programmes here. These are “Konkani” lyrics. They will make you understand, where exactly they fit.

सांग्यार म्हाज्या गांवा | सांग्यार म्हाज्या गांवा सखे ग ||
पाकल्यानि माल्ला फार | पाकल्यानि माल्ला फार सखे ग ||
वदिला कुष्ट बाल | वदिला कुष्ट बाल सखे ग ||
कुष्ट बाळाचे शीर | कुष्ट बाळाचे शीर सखे ग || 
बादिला तांबड्या लेसां | बादिला तांबड्या लेसां सखे ग ||
धाडीला पाटण शारा | धाडीला पाटण शारा सखे ग ||
अस्तुरी दुका गाळी | आनंदी दुका पुशी सखे ग ||

The person awfully mentioned in the lyricnote is certainly not a common man. These types of anecdotes are sung generally in full devotion to a great, courageous, gallant and efficient warrior, thus remembering his sacrifice for the nation. It is also worthy to note, only royal males, the calibre of kings and other princes, were meted with such inhuman show act of parading, the severed heads in war on high poles at the capital city. Those were the days when in A.D1674 when Aravidus Dynasty rule came to an end at the hands of Maratha leader though united muslim princes fought the war actually at Penugonda capital of Vijayanagara at that time after the fall of “Hampi”. its first capital. When the last ruler fell then automatically Goa came under new rule.Adilsha was then a vassal king of Goa earlier under Vijayanagara rule. But he freed himself after the war debacle at Penugonda. His new rule was weak. Portuguese sailors disturbed his territories time and again.Adilsha too was himself not happy with the strong presence of Vijayanagara princes in hide outs. History also says, Adilsha helped Portuguese sailors to curb the strong erstwhile princes. They killed many of them. Kusta Bal is one of them. Now yet another old lyric will put more light on this killing. Please read
   आम्यातळा बोणकी वोळा 
थंय कित्या बाळा तू पावलेलोरे |
थंय कित्या बाळा तू पावलेलोरे ||
म्हाझ्या मातेची सोलमुदी शेणल्या   
सोदुन दि बाळा न्हयवोळारे | 
सोदुन दि बाळा न्हयवोळा ||

This melancholic song of yester year, even today is as a major devotional recital at anannual festival called “Dhalotsava” at ancient village of Ambaulim. Prior to little modern name this village was known by name “Amyatal” or Amolem. The meaning of all three names is one and the same. This festival here inspires “Rambhas or Aphridots where they call eagerly to their brother to attend the festival. But even today every year, it is witnessed the nimbling brother of his beloved sisters (Rambhas) never visits the spiritual place here before singing this above mentioned recital. It is very important to see all nimbling “Rambhas” and their nimbling brother is always below age group of 3 to 6 years. Although the brother continues, sometimes this nimbling acts till12 years of age, Rambhas always before attaining female maturity. It is firmly believed here all these spirits explain your future good or bad, if you ask them to do so. The above lyric speaks of a loving character full of “Bonake” it means a stream full of cactus plants (Bonnaki). It is nice place for hide-outs. No one would have caught you and killed here. In a formidable and timely answer suppose to be he tells them, (he is considered to be “Kusta Bal” who  was their beloved Prince) his mother`s “Solmudi” means foot finger ring has lost at a place where a river and a stream meet. Here it is clear he went to “Sangam or Sanguem” taluka where a river and a stream meet at a place called “Taripanto” hence the place is called “Sangam”. If these local anecdotes pertaining to the truth of history then the person whom Portuguese killed at Sanguem and paraded his severe head on tall pole at patten (capital) (it means Panaji) is surely of the prince Kustaji Bal alias Kustaji alias Kalu Naik of Vijayanagara's Tulu Dynasty. I know readers will be happy over the  evidence. The foll. are the names of Cuncolim martyrs whom Portuguese regime killed treacherously in 1683 A.D. The days when the last emperor of Vijayanagar kingdom Venkatpatiraya of “Aravindu”  Dynasty died after the deadly battle at “Hukkeri Woods”. The direct impact of this defeat readily seen in Goa. The prince of Tulu or Tulva Dynasty, who were already in hideouts unfortunately fell in hands of Portuguese who killed them mercilessly somewhere near Betul and Assolna or elsewhere the part of Cuncolim village. The foll. princes of tulu or tulva and Aravindus dynasties both dynasties of shepherd cult lost their lives except one .
1) Kusta or Kalgo Naik (escaped)(Tulu Dynasty) 2) Manko Naik (Tulu)
3) Aga Naik (Tulu) 4) Shanta Chati(Aravindu Dynasty)
5) Ramraya Naik (Tulu) 6) Khapru Naik (Tulu)
7) Shambu Naik (Tulu) 8)Tapanna Naik (Tulu)
9) Zanganna Naik (Tulu) 10)Polpoto Naik (Tulu)
11) Bocharo Naik (Tulu) 12)Shanta Shet(Aravindu)
13) Vithoba Naik (Tulu) 14) Yessu Naik (Tulu)
15) Guno Naik (Tulu) 16) Jiblo Naik(.......)

A wide range of similarities relevantly in comparison are observed between capital city Hampi of Vijayanagara and that of Sangam or Sanguem Taluka of Goa. This taluka of course is a native place to Sangma Dynasty of Vijayanagar vast empire. The distance between these two places i.e. Sanguem and Hampi is about 320 kms. by rail but at its short cut distance it is only around 250kms. Importantly and fortunately there is no other place by name Sangam or Sanguem related to illustrated Sangma Royal Dynasty. Again Sangma`s were shepherds. Everyone knows their love towards finding new and short cut roads for pasture to graze their sheep, goats and cattle. Goan people also know the bygone fact that a shepherd from Sanguem taluka had guided British Govt. to find out the present rail route from Vasco, Goa to other distant places in Karnataka and Maharashtra. Prior to this present railway route, it was a narrow foot way passing via the present Dudhasagar falls but the same was finding at three different places of lengthy Dudhasagar falls. So it was nearly beyond construction as a road because one had to construct three bridges, even more difficult and lengthy to present one. The very name Dudhasagar it means a great respect to shepherd cult. It exactly means an ocean of milk. But others firmly believe, Dudhasagar it means, the water here falls from a much elevated height. When it falls it looks like a falling and splitting alike milk. But this may not be true, because the history of Sangma Dynasty goes saying much earlier during A.D.1335, Harihara Raya and Bukka Raya had followed this present railway route before its construction. They were led by their political Guru Vidhyaranya to present “Anagondi” at “Hampi”. But further in A.D.1505 during Shrikrishnadevarayas reign over Vijayanagara including that of Goa the people and army used to come by the same route. If the same is true then the shepherd who founded out this route is either the dignitary of Sangma Dynasty or that of “Tulu or Tulva” Dynasty. But for much evidence he was a “shepherd”.

If we want to speak more about this Tulu or Tulva Dynasty, then the same was previously known as “Kanneri” Kurubal cult. This minority hails from southern Kannada state of Karnataka. They speak Tulu language. This lipi is a verbal mix of Kannada, Marathi and Konkani. This lipi has no script of its own. It is always seen written in either Kannada or in Devanagari alphabetic order. Tulu Dynasty ruled Vijayanagara vast empire including Goa and Konkan from A.D.1486 to 1576. Dates sometimes show a little difference it is so because few writers ensure the date of crown ceremony and others the actual power toppling from earlier ruler. Readers please consider, nothing is wrong here. The founder ruler of this formidable dynasty was Naras Naik or Naique. Please, it is very important to note here, Naik is only a citation conferred upon by “Sulu Dynasty” ruler His Kingship Shri Salve Narasimha A.D.1486 to 1491, over his chief of army staff Shri Veer Narasimha Deva. The citation was then called as “Naras Naika” it exactly means “Sarsenapati” in Marathi. So, for Tulu or Tulva Dynasty Naik or Naique is never a surname that depicts their cast. Tulu Dynasty belongs to “Shepherd”cult. They are called “Govalis in Goa”. Mystically though but till today Tulu Dynasty Royals always call Dudhasagar falls as Dudhasagar Baba or Azzo. It is very important to understand here, Tulu`s respect towards it. Naras Naik then took charge first as a caretaker, as the last Sulu or Salve ruler was without issue and then as a king without any sort of bloodshed. I know, while writing this heckered history, there are some omissions and additions too. so it is more relevant to make readers to understand by their own thought. But this can be done only through authenticity of chronology of past events, anecdotes, tales and standing culture and ruins thereby. I am mentioning here four royal dynasties who ruled Vijayanagara vast vast mpire, namely Sangma Dynasty, Sulu or Sulva Dynasty, Tulu or Tulva Dynasty and Aravindhu Dynasty. Altogether twenty-eight kings ruled it for nearly about 338 years from A.D.1338 to 1676 His Kingship Shri Veer Narasimha Deva or Naras Naique who ruled in A.D. 1486 has kept a good bit of truth through lively anecdotes. Even today you can get better link of the contemporary events. The songs are in Konkani.

राय, चंद्रावळ त्यो काय दोग्यो बहणी
वाडील चंद्रावळ ती काय गोवाळ्याची राणी

This song is talking about two queens. Both belong to shephred cult. There is a palace at Quepem. It is known as Dev or Deo or Deao palace. It is situated in Kuruban or Kusban, a ward presently in Quepem taluka. Quepem taluka`s earlier and very famous name is Chandrawadi or Chandrawali. A prince of Tulu Dynasty by name Yaman Naique married to a Saraswat girl by name maee later on her husbands name as Chandravali. It is interesting to see, how this girl married to this prince. He was then staying at Bakadwadi (Goat palace) at Markai in Phonda Taluka. The song goes this way.

गोवूळ्या मामा दि म्हजो हार गा
गोवूळ्या मामा दि म्हजो हार.....
हार दिल्यार काय म्हाका दिशी गे
हार दिल्यार काय म्हाका दिशी.
दियीन दियीन पांच नारळ गा
दियीन दियीन पांच नारळ
पांच नारळ तुजे पांच देवा थेयीन गे
पांच नारळ तुजे पांच देवा थेयीन
गोवूळ्या मामा दि म्हजो हार गा
गोवूळ्या मामा दि म्हजो हार.....
हार दिल्यार काय म्हाका दिशी गे
हार दिल्यार काय म्हाका दिश.
दियीन दियीन पांच पोडी तानूळ गे
दियीन दियीन पांच पोडी तानूळ
पांच पोडी तानूळ तुजे पाच घरा वाटीन गे
पांच पोडी तानूळ तुजे पाच घरा वाटीन....
गोवूळ्या मामा दि म्हजो हार गा
गोवूळ्या मामा दि म्हजो हार.....
हार दिल्यार काय म्हाका दिशी गे
हार दिल्यार काय म्हाका दिशी.
दियीन दियीन पांच पनी विडा गा
दियीन दियीन पांच पनी विडा
पांच पनी विडा तुजा पांच पेडी(तुळसी ) थेयीन गे
पांच पनी विडा तुजा पांच पेडी(तुळसी ) थेयीन
गोवूळ्या मामा दि म्हजो हार गा
गोवूळ्या मामा दि म्हजो हार.....
हार दिल्यार काय म्हाका दिशी गे
हार दिल्यार काय म्हाका दिशी.
दियीन दियीन पांच पुडी पिंजर गा
दियीन दियीन पांच पुडी पिंजर.......

The christian subject of Goa and particularly that of village Amole or Tolop or Tank all these names here are it means Ambaulim, reacted the above love affair of their beloved prince by this way through their own and formidable accent. Let us embrace the beautiful and spiritual tune.

पितळे पिला 
कोवड्या मोती गेला 
तोळोप फुटोन तोळपा
उदो जाला 
मोगाचे देणे भोतून दिला
माटवात साकरेचे मेणे व्हायाला


पितळे = पिटोळी (Symbol denoting the girl)
कोवडो = Symbol denoting prince
तोळोप = Other name for village Ambaulim
उदो = उदक मन पिरगळय
भोतून = रीण फारिक करप
साकरे मेणे व्हावोवप = चडावत गोड जीनसाचो सावार, लोकांक खोशी करप

In short, the girl who belongs to Wagle well to do family from Tiswadi. The clever girl at first place offered all the items that are needed during marriage ceremony. In the end she offered him five chips of cinnabar and bowed before him, stretching her forehead. The wise prince understood her love and dotted her forehead with his right hand thumb. It means he married her.

What is meant by culture? It is defined as, a vast piece of land region where millions of people live together for centuries, the remains of their once presence here, such as constructive skills, heaps, ruins and mounds is called culture of that particular place.

Sometimes vacated or ruined towns, cities and even metropolis by the impact of wars, devastating natural calamities, serious and non curable epidemic force people to change their shelters in a big way. These people then though forcibly leave their original place but then they never forget their past life. They always try to live in a new place with past reminiscences. They try hard and build new villages and construct their houses sometimes even towns and cities in a manner, keeping in view their old living styles of life. Sangma Dynasty is not an exception to this rule. With due respect to their original and birth place, they chose to construct their new capital city by name “Hampi”. You will see many similarities between Sangam or Sanguem and Hampi. Let us see how they come together if not geographically but at least through aureola equating their names of places, spirits, hillocks, dams, Talis etc.

Sangam or Sanguem Hampi
1 There is a river passing through this hamlet called River Saleli or Sangam. 1 There is a river passing through the metropolis called River Tunghabhadra.
2 There are mini dams present in this river, presently under the waters of Selaulim vast dam. This dam irrigates nearby fields by way of canals. These canals were constructed by either Harihara Raya himself or his father as chieftain of Sangam. 2 There are small dams present in the waters of world famous Tughabhadra Dam. These dams too were constructed by Harihara Raya to irrigate the fields when he first became the ruler here.
3 There is a dam called Bhovsule Band, inside the water of Selaulim Dam. Its canal is called “Kurdi” canal. 3 There is a canal, even today it is seen here is called “Turdi or Turd” canal. The names of small dams inside are not known but elderly people say there are dams inside of Tungabhudra big dam.
4 In Sanguem taluka as we all know there is annual celebration of religious extravaganza by name Virabhadra. 4 There is an udan Veerbhadra temple at Hampi. It is very popular. It is a sign of moral efficiency.
5 Sanguem as an ancient “Hamlet” there are:
A) Astradhara Madhavanath
B) Kanady Dev
C) Kanady Purus
D) Hemad Devastan
5 Madhavanath temples here spurt with more devotion during first two Sangma kings namely Harihara Raya and Bukka Raya and further more during Tulu or Tulva Dynasty. Astha Mathavnath, Kanadi Dev, Kanady Purus and Hemad Dev were adorned by Tulu or Tulva Dynasty here. But of course they were as Kannada kings.
6 There is a famous Pandava cave and a place called “Pandava Sodo”. 6 Five sons of Harihara Raya and Bukka Raya called themselves as incarnations of five Pandavas of “Hindu” Epic Mahabharata. There is also a Pandava Cave, well seen even today here.
7 There is a “Bood Bood Tali or a Bubble pond” at Sangam. It is mysterious, because it emerges beautiful bubbles at its surface when any person at any given time claps his hands at its band. 7 At Hampi you will see at central Tali or waterpond, which is mysterious because till date one never knows the source, from where the water is brought.
8 There is a “Chand Suraj” (Sun and Moon) hillock here. 8 There is a “Badi Bahan choti Bahan (elder and younger sister) hillock here.
9 Sangam is a well fortified hamlet here. It is surrounded by big and small mountains at one side and River Saleli at the other. 9 Metropolis “Hampi” earlier it seems is surrounded by big and small hillocks but presently they too are covered by buildings but, are well fortified.

Two kings by names Sulu Narasimha and his son Immadi Narsimha ruled Vijayanagara Kingdom from A.D.1486 to 1503. Some historians say, lone king Sulu Narasimha ruled this kingdom. The other above named king Immadi Narasimha ruled it as a regent, not with crown. Immadi Narasimha had two sons. Both these young princes were trained and looked after by a Tulu or Tulva Dynasty man by name Veer Narasimha Deva Raya. He was earlier known as that of “Kanneri” Kurubal cult. He served Sulu Dynasty as Naras Naique and Danda Naique. It means army and judiciary chief. He had also an additional duty as a Governor General. Sulu Narasimha when took charge of the kingdom in A.D.1486, he too was a Governor General of northern east of the Vijayanagara empire. By this time the Sangma dynasty became weak under Mallikarjun Raya and his son Virupaksha Raya. Bahamani king took benefit of this and waged war against Virupaksha Raya. At this time Sulu Narsimha fought bravely and defected Bahamanis. He became a popular leader. He took charge of Vijayanagar as a king without any bloodshed. But his rule never fulfilled even his own expectations. He had to fight Palegar insergeant leaders. He died in A.D.1499.

Immadi Narsimha, say suppose either as a king or as an agent or regent of Sulu Narasimha, he ruled for fourteen years. Out of his two sons, one of them died when he was just small. The other son died when Immadi Narsimha fell seriously ill. The anecdotal lyric of our family describes his death by this way (death of prince). The lyric is in Konkani language.

भिंती गुल्लरयांची खामे रतनाचे
रायी मुयेक नाही रिग....... रायी
खयच्यान आलो नाग

After the serious illness of his father, when young prince suddenly died one day then the royal palace declared his death by a cobra snake bite. Nevertheless the people are shrewd and clever. A third person may be a common citizen explains his/her grievances in a better way to his/her queen, mother of the slain prince who was supposed to be the next king. Oh! queen the walls of your palace are fitted with tiles. The pillars are studded with diamonds. Your palace is non-passable even for an ant then how came cobra snake here to bite our beloved prince. If we go for the authenticity and truth of the song then, it is a cent percent proof. Thus came the end of the Sulu or Salve dynasty. Not in a way, the people would like it.

Dynastic Family : Tulu or Tuluva
No. of Kings : Six
PIONEER KING : Naras Naique or Narasambike


This incredible dynasty ruled Vijayanagara vast empire for over sixty-five years.The founder king of this majestic and formidable dynasty was Narasa Naik,or Narasa Nayaka or Naique. Whatever your lip accent it may sound, the true meaning of the word Naik it means the leader of people. There is no other meaning to it. Narasimhadeva Raya assumed the title “Naik” when, he served Saluva dynasty as “Danda Narka” it means Chief Justice of the empire. He was a wise person, he delivered good justice to the people of Saluva kingdom. Later on when Saluva Dynasty become weaker under king Saluva Narashima Deva, Naras Naika impressed every royal courtier with his clever approach and classic
governing ability. History further says, he took over the kingdom of Vijayanagara into his hands, most importantly without any sort of bloodshed. He was fully adorned and respected by his subject. His Tulu Dynasty is originated from Konkan, when kings considered Konkan as a wholesome part of a vast region where places like Karwar, Manglore, Sawantwadi and State of Goa were included. Even today some parts of Manglore and few more parts of interior south Karnataka speaks, “Tulu” language  though they are of Kannada origin where they speak Kannada language. This Tulu language is a mixture tune of Konkani, Kannada and Marathi languages. These languages speaking areas are also seen in Goa, Maharashtra and Karnataka. Though the accent and style is little different. Tulu Dyanasty kings were speaking Tulu language. They belong to “Yadava Vomsha” They are called Gavalis in Goa,Dhanagaras in Maharashtra and Karubal or Kurubal in Karnataka. These people are very courageous, builders, planners, designers at their birth.

They too, were very rich, prosperous and well to do in respect of human life. They possessed and tamed thousands of goats, sheep, buffaloes and various cattles. They always intensively searched for good and vast pastures along with their chieftain to satisfy the day to day needs. During those days, their milk products, milk and meat and its products were considered as second best finance regularity,only next to agriculture. So, for them, money was not a concern in their lives. In addition to this, they  too were agriculturists. Little more about, “Tulu” language, it is widely spoken in Manglore district of Karnataka. Unfortunately this royal lipi till this date remained only a spoken language without any  written literature. It is disgusting to see a language flourished recently during Vijayanagara rule in India. More to add for its authenticity, the imperial metropolis of “Hampi” remained one of the best and well deserved bygone cities in the world. It is a pitiful time to Indian culture. This lipi presently written in  Kannada in Karnataka Konkani in Goa, earlier during Portuguese regime in Marathi. In Maharastra, they use Marathi, for writing purpose though they speak “Tulu”.

A twenty years reign of Suluva dynasty when came to an end, the vast Vijayanagara empire came under Tuluva Narasanaika in A.D. 1491 to 1495. By this time he wished to retire. His age too,
was much more. He handed over his crown to his elder son, Tappana Naik, the accent of which in Kannada is Tappanike. Narasunaika was a peace loving king. His earlier designation as “Dandnaika” or Chief Justice never permitted him a strong king`s robe. His earlier or birth name was Narsimhadeva Raya. But when he ascended the throne, he continued with the later name which he got through Sulu royal dynasty “Narasanaika”. Naika, Nayak or Naique it means a leader nothing else. It also means neither a caste nor a creed. Narasa Naika himself was a “Karubal” or shepherd.

Narasanaika had three sons, Tippanike, Naganna Naik or Nagambike and Obam Naik or Obambike. While Obambike died early death, Tappana Naika took reigns in his hands in A.D.1495 to A.D.1505. He is responsible to send his younger brother, Naganna Naik to Goa and Konkan when he defeated Adil Shah in Deccan as governor general. He died or descended the throne in A.D.1500. His son Veer Narsimha ascended the throne in A.D.1500 and ruled only for about five years and the throne came into the hands of illustrious king Shri Krishna Devaraya.

SHRI KRISHNA DEVARAYA. (1509 to 1530 A.D.):
This benevolent king will always be remembered for his courage, spirit, nobility and efficiency in written and spoken language in the Indian history. He was born in 1489. He ascended the throne on 8th August A.D.1509. A very popular traveller and author by name Paes who attended the royal crown ceremony says, he was just a twenty year lad during his crown ceremony. A medium height youngster but very much handsome. There were two beauty spots (natural) on his face both sides on cheeks. He also compared himself to Prince Nakula who was considered to be the most handsome man on earth of Hindu epic Mahabharat and a famous Pandava. At that time he called everyone of his foreign dignitaries at first place and paid them his royal respect. He was an extraordinary administrator and better justice deliverer. Before retiring from the active politics,willingly, he had conquered almost all south India. The reason why he is always compared to the mighty king Harshavardhana to south and Pulkeshin II in the north. No other king in Indian history has ever ruled such a vast empire after his own.

His General Administration:
During his reign Vijayanagara empire touched its height of glory. His administrative system had four divisions 1) state administration, council administration, border security and reserved force administration. An executive magistrate was the incharge in each district. He was assisted by junior officers, police officers, army platoon, guards etc.

These districts were empowered with a sole judge else no other could interfere. Though at state level sometimes Governor General could ask for redress. So he always chose competent persons for judicial acts. Only serious criminals used to get death penalty but it always needed kings say on it. His was a clean administration. There was a fully devoted and well behaved police force in force. He always thought of his female subject.

There were thousands of lady personnel in to his police force. Woman also got high education, wrestling, as fortunetellers, music and dance. More importantly few of the women were judges in his vast empire. He believed in “Veer Hanumana”, Boar and Sun. The reason why, you will see more than 300 hundred idols of monkey cult. He believed in “Boar” because  according to him it is the same animal who carried away our earth to our present safe place by holding it into his mouth. And of course sun is a deity without whose help no one will survive. Though came from shepherd cult, most superior caste those days, he was a secular fabric in every way. He had constructed all sorts of Temples, Masjids, Buddha and Jain temples. He had lot of foreign priests of Christian religion in his court. Though there is no mention of any church here in those days, it is understandable, there was no major Christian population here. The allround excellent king had hundreds of high profile muslim officers into his governing administration. He had permitted every religion to go with their own rites and rituals. He firmly believed “every man has an equal right to serve his religion” He was a multi-linguistic king. He was a genius in Telugu, Sanskrit and Tulu languages. He made Mahabharata easy. He also took every part of it concerning politics of those days. He authorized his books in Telugu language. His court contained Brahamin, Jain and Muslim poets. He is rightly termed as “Kannada Genius”.

Conquest of Rashol:
This village presently is a part of Salcete taluka of Goa. Most of the Goan people never know much about this beautiful ancient capital city. Even to- day I have never visited this spiritual village. But I will not give up my say on it, after reading its history by Domingos Paes written during his visit to Vijayanagra probably written in A.D 1520-1522. Professor Domingo Paes says, this city of Rachol lies between two great rivers, and in the midst of a great plain where there are no trees except very small ones, and there are great boulders there, from each river to the city of Rachol are three leagues. One of these rivers is the northern boundary, and beyond it the country (land) belongs to the Adilshah, and the other is the boundary to the south which is the boundry of Vijayanagra. This plain (Rachol) lies in the middle of these two rivers, and there are large lakes therein and wells and small little streams where the city is situated, and a hill which looks like a woman’s breast and is of natural formation. The city has three lines of strong walls of heavy masonry made without lime, the wall are packed with earth inside, and it has on the highest point  of fortress like a tower, very high and strong. At the top where fortress stands is a spring of water which runs all the year round. It is held to be holy and mysterious thing that a spring which is in a lofty situation should in some way never be without water. Besides this spring there are several tanks of water and wells, so that the citizens had no fear of being ever taken for lack of water, and there were in the city supplies for five years. There were eight thousand men as garrison and four hundred horse and twenty elephants and thirty catapults (I never know what it mean) which hurled heavy stones and did great damage. The towers which are on the walls are so close together that one can hear words spoken from one another. Between these and all around they posted their artillery, which consisted of two hundred heavy pieces, not to mention small ones. As soon as the people of the city knew of the arrival of the kings troops, and after they had received a captain of the Adilshah who came with some soldiers to the city, they closed the gates with stone and mortar. The chief fight which takes place is on the east side, because on the north sides it stands on huge rocks which make it very strong, and the city being besieged on all sides, the camp of the king was on the east side and so was the strength of the attack.                   

How Shree Krishna Devaraya Besieged Capital Rachol:
It is nice to meet to see and is even today a better option to win wars. Fernao Nuniz says, the tent of the King was surrounded by a great hedge of thorns with only one entrance, and with a gate at which stood his guards. Inside this hedge loged the Brahman who washes him and has charge of the idol that he always carries about him and also other persons who hold offices about the kings person, and eunuchs who are always to be found in his chamber. And outside this circle all around are his guards who watch all night at fixed spots, with this guard and quartered the officers of the household; and from thence to the front were all the other captains in their appointed post, according as each one was entrusted and ordered. Outside of all these people, in a camp by themselves, were the scouts of whom I have already spoken whose duty it is to patrol all night through the camp and watch to see if they can catch any spices. On the other side the washer men, (who are those that wash army clothes were in a camp by themselves and that were near to the place where they could best wash clothes.
All the camp was divided into regular streets. Each captains division has its markets, where you found all kinds of meat, such as sheep, goats, pigs, fowls, hares, partridges and other birds, and this is in great abundance, so much so that it would seem as if you were in (green grains) and other seeds that the army eat. Besides these things, which are necessaries, they had yet another market where you could find in great abundance, everything that you wanted, in these markets. They also sell things that in our Portugal are sold by professional hucksters. There were craftsmen, also working in their streets provided to them. So gold articles, jewels and gewgaws, and you will find all kinds of rubies and diamonds and pearls, with every other kind of precious stones for sale. There also were to be seen sellers of clothes, and these were without number as that is a thing so many want, they being of soft cotton. There were also to be seen grass and straw in infinite abundance. I do not know who could describe it so as to believed, so barren a country is this “Rachol’ and s sandy. It is mystery how there should be an abundance of everything therein. Anyone can imagine what grass and straw would be required each day for the consumption of thirty – two thousand four hundred horses and five hundred and fifty- one elephants. It is better not to speak sumpter- mules and asses, and the great numbers of oxen which carry all the supply and other burdens, such as tents. Even today no one can dream such a lot at a time for a single war. Use of drums and trumpets and other musical instruments just uncountable. But I cease to speak more, because I should never finish. Let me talk about army.
After besiege of the “Rachol” foe few days, the King (Shri Krishna Devaraya) ordered his army for the last show. Following is the order of the war front. The chief of the guard led the advance with thirty thousand infantry cum archers, men with shields, and musqueteers and spearmen and a thousand horses and twenty elephants. After him went Adapana Naik with one thousand foot and five thousand horses and fifty elephants. After him came the commander in chief with one hundred and twenty thousand foot, six thousand horses and sixty elephants. After him went comara (may be a prince) with eighty thousand foe and two thousand horses, forty elephants. Ogemadra the governor of Vijayanagra (city) with one of his captain who had one thousand horses and thirty thousand foot and few elephants. The king himself took of his guards six thousand horses and forty thousand foot along with pick ranks in fighting ability and nobles of his empire. The King easily but not without efforts won the “Rochal”. The noble King waged this costly war for a small piece of land Rachol (Goa) for he had heard; Adlishah hurt lot to two majority communities here. I do not wish to name them because everyone knoe about that. The King too new well, that under a treaty with King Devaraya II, the new rulars of Adlishahi failed to pay their tribute being vassal King for last ten years. The war was definitely a need. This happened in 1552. Prior to war professor Nuniz was serving as an important officer at the court of shri Krishna.

Nothing would have gone wrong for imperial empire of Vijayanagara, if great emperor Shri Krishna Deva Raya had he not married his daughter Tuluva Basvanti whom Portuguese called by name Bysina to Aliya Ramaraya a selfish person. Shri Krishnadeva Raya under the burden of love towards his daughter and also for his weakening of health placed his infant son on the throne offering every power in the hands of Aliya Ramaraya. Our family history says, Achuta Devaraya was the step brother of  Shrikrishna Devaraya. Few other historians never believe it. Some of them believe, they were three brothers of a single queen of king Tappana Naik. Shrikrishna, Achuta and Ramaraya Devaraya. But very last name looks funny to compare with other two names. Shri Krishna Deva Raya and Achuta Deva Raya. But it is simple to understand from availed history, nothing was going well between Shrikrishna Deva Raya and his brother Achut Deva Raya. Achuta Deva Raya assumed throne in A.D. 1530. In between chaos and mislead power brtween Aliya and Achuta. The empire by this way lost many good vassel kingdoms. But aftermath, he rose to the occasion and kept alive the whole empire intect till his death. He also amassed lot of treasure. He was never a violent king.

During his early rule, Goa was declared independent by a muslim ruler other than Adilsha but Achuta Deva Raya with the help of three Naika leders of his own tulu Dynasty here again recovered it in A.D.1536 (date not certain) and handed it to Adilsha as usual even during Shri Krishna Deva Raya. But not to forget Naikas were Governor Generals and Supremos. The muslim Prince who dared to challenge him, it seems may be Asad Khan, overlord of Belgaum. This clever king history says always took help from muslim king against another muslim ruler, even if he needed to pay for it either in cash or a piece of land. But his successor never followed this policy. The reason why he is considered as a little weak king. But timely good answer is not a weakness. Live aside about his glamorous life as a king, fortunately for India he is a lone super epigraphists, enjoying it along with big crown. He too was liberal towards Brahamans, considered as an inefficient class those days, compared to his other counterparts.  He died peacefully enjoying his own art epigraphy at his capital Hampi in A.D. 1542.

An Elephent at Hampi

Fortunatly for Vijaynagara empire, this king had everything at his disposal. But unfortunately he never tried to remain as a power as his counterparts did. After the death of Achuta Deva Raya, his father he ascended the throne in A.D.1542. There is no reason to say, he was a puppet king. History clearly mentions, he signed every document as a sovereign king. Three powerful brothers by name Tirumala, venkatadri and Ramaraya lessened his burden as a king is a historical fact. The other important fact is, the central command i.e. king Sadasiva always trusted these strong brothers. The defeat of Vijanagara in 1565 is an order of destiny. No one is born to live forever. Three dynasties 1) Sangma 2) Sul or Sulva and 3) Tulu or Tulva ruled Vijayanagara for a period of 210 years. It is a long period of time for a vast empire. Also unfortunately more than 60% of the king including Marathas, Naikas and both Muslim sects leaders gone against Vijayanagra.

The result only the capital city with its small surroundings around fell. Otherwise Vijayanagara empire lived more than another 140 years, in addition to another tail wagging period till, India’s independence. More importently, Vijaynagara shrewd and clever princes never allowed their huge treasure to go into the hands of multiple enemies. The reason why they razed the city to heaps of boulders for not getting anything after big losses. King Sadasiva fled much earlier before even his anticipated success or may be a long time bound defeat. It is easy to understand his cleverness. You destroy a piece of land. But I will never allow you a pie. While fleeing to Kerala, history says, he took 600 elephants loaded with treasure out of which 60 elephants were loaded with only diamonds and other precious stones 300elephants loaded with Gold, 100 Loaded Silver and others with coins and Currency of the time. Now readers will know what the enemies will get after their success. The reason why no one even occupied it. Sadasiva died at the old age in A.D. 1567 in Kerala as a King.

ARAVINDUS DYNASTY (1570 to 1676 A.D.)
After the fall of capital city “Hampi” the metropolis of exclusive modernity at the hands of several joint forces, Vijayanagara kingdom as a whole never came to a halt. It continued its administration for about another hundred and forty years. This long period of time is considered as dragged of time for survival. It never made an impression in Indian history. Vijayanagara history goes saying, it survived only because of earlier kings` name and fame, more importantly they had kept huge treasure behind them. This helped Aravidus kings to carry on with the Vijayanagara empire crown. The crown itself was a prestigious symbol in every respect. It is also very important to see, how Aravidus Dynasty got better in getting powers into their hands. When metropolis of “Hampi” fell down at “Rakkasa – Tangadagi” in Jan.1565A.D.where the enemy forces severed the head of “Ramaraya Tirumal” who virtually ruled Vijayanagara and stuck it on a high column, it scared away the Vijayanagara army. They ran for their own life, allowing enemies of muslim kings to molest the modesty of generalpublic and to raze the  metropolis to a vast heap of remains.

The fall of Vijayanagara brought into being the rule of fourth and last Vijayanagara Dynasty in A.D.1570, some say it is 1565 A.D. A prince by name Tirumala Vodiyar who was supposed to be the kin of king Sadashiva Raya, unfortunately was imprisoned by Ramaraya who always misused the powers without the knowledge of the king Sadashiva Raya. When this prince saw the death of his worst enemy, Ramaraya, he suddenly rose to react the grave situation. He left the capital along with the aged king Sadashiva Raya with huge and countless treasure.

Aravidus Dynasty, nearly ruled as long as Sangma rule over Vijayanagara. They managed to keep the vast empire alive. It was not a cake walk. They suffered lot but never gave up. They chose their new capital first at Penugonda and later on shifted it to Chandragundi. Even after that they again chose several cities for their capital. It was their policy. It helped them to keep away their worst foes. In such cases enemies were unable to concentrate their power against them. Virtually this policy though looks, little wavered, but it helped Aravidus to extend their rule for such a long period of time. At the end it is also very important to mention the extended worthy rule of Aravidus tail enders, how it came to an end?. When Maratha supremo and Prince Shivaji of Bhosale royal family crowned himself as king of Maratha power in A.D.1674. Prior to this prince even, Aravidus princes fought bravely. It should be given to the credit of Aravidus that they thought it safer a defeat before Maratha leader than anyone else. King of Maratha henceforth never troubled them into their life. To quote an example, one of the Maratha powerful kings, Sambhaji Raje Bhosle, defeated Portuguese here in Goa but forgave them. The reason, history says Goa`s major territory was under a Hindu King of Vijayanagara. At this stage Portuguese had superiority only over two talukas. But history if it wants to write in a better way then, presently it seems Maratha king made a grave mistake in entertaining Portuguese trevellers. Later on they brought the whole of Goa under their rule and ruled it for more than four hundred fifty years. The six rulers of Aravidus are follows
1) Tirumala Vodiyar A.D.1578 to 1582
2) Shriranga I 1582 to 1588
3) Venkata I from A.D.1588 to 1618
4) Ramadeva A.D. 1618 to 1638
5) Venkata I from A.D. 1638 to 1648 and the last emperor
6) Srirang III from 1648 to 1676.

Almost all the kings of Sangama, Sulu or Salve and Tulu or Tulva dynasties ruled over Goa from A.D. 1345 to A.D.1570. When in A.D. 1336, Harihara I ascended his new throne at Anagondi as his capital. It was not an easy time for him and four brothers, namely Bukka Raya, Marappa, Kepanna and Mudanna. For his beloved brethren, HisKingship Shri Harihara Raya considered them as five Pandavas against the follow up chase over their enemies. They succeeded in doing so when they conquered many nearby kingdoms in a very short time. They then started conquering other bigger states and annexed them to their empire Vijayanagara. The territorial as well as political expansion of these Sangama Dynasty brothers was very fast, rapid and full of competency. So by the time A.D.1340 it became an empire with vastness. His Kingship Shri Harihara Raya I was a wise king and an honest human, politically matured and shrewd in every way as a noble king. He knew well, his brave brothers were a part of every success. He wished not to deprive them as kings with crown. So he decided to divide his empire amongst his brothers. Unfortunately their last brother Mudanna Raya died a  premature death. So then Harihara Raya I as a supremo of the empire handed over to his brothers, the geographical divisions.

By these political divisions Bukka Raya got central regions, that included, Dor Samundar and its vast nearby regions, Kepanna looked after eastern vast regions and frontiers of the empire and Prince Marappa got, more importantly for Goa`s bright history looked after western zone  such as Banavasi Konkan including Goa, south of Karnataka, Alibagh and Karwar. Everyone of these brothers was allotted with every power as a king. Though central capital “Hampi” always remained as  a parent body with every defence, security and final political disposals. So it is clear Prince Marappa Raya became the first such king who actually ruled Goa as a king from Goa itself, under Vijayanagar  vast empire. Earlier in the checkered history of Goa, one has never seen a king as an independent king with crown. He was a nice person with gifted goodness. He too was born at Sanguem taluka of Goa. He was exceptionally a good planner as he was a shepherd. He constructed towns like Markai, from where he ruled later on for few years. He named his palace as Bokadwadi or Goat palace. Wisely these rulers never forgot their earlier kurubal cult (Shepherd Dyanasty). Marcela, Mardicota or  Marappa Cotto at Cuncolim Salcete. Cotto it means a better living place or stage. It always shows an  elevated plain with clean atmosphere. Here at Cuncolim Salcete you will also find a place by name “Bhekle Wadi” it also means goat palace. Forest goats like animals are called “Bhenkle”. Salve or Sulu Dynasty of Vijayanagar empire when came to power as Vijayanagar king in A.D.1486.

The single king of this dynasty also ruled Goa for about twenty years. One of his powerful generals by name Narsimha Deva, well known by his pet name Naras Naika, it means chief of the army virtually ruled in the name of Sul or Sulva Dynasty. The king also by name Sulva Narsimha, the lone king of said dynasty changed many local names of places in Goa and elsewhere in his kingdom. The relevant aim of such emperors is to make forget people, the earlier kings. In Goa he changed Sangam to Sal, River Sangam to River Sal, Mharagaon to Salcete. He also renamed the places linking them to his own  dynasty Sulva or Sal. Some of them are Saleli, Saldoda Salcotta at Cuncolim, Salgoot (Calangute). Goot here it means mysterious stage or place. All these changes bring to our notice, why we have lot of places in different names or with multi names. They are worthy changes after political big royal change in the kingdom. Fortunately these things offer better and reliable historical information to the historians who try to formulate a correct history. The political life of Goa during the reigns of Tuluvas or Tulu  Dynasty, previously it was known by the name “Kanneri Kurubal”. These people were shepherds by  cult. After assuming the throne, they changed their name as Tulu or Tulva. This is because, they spoke Tulu language.This formidable dynasty in Indian history ruled Goa for about sixty years.

They changed Goa into a popular centre for decency, brotherhood and luxury. They constructed lengthy roads planted trees along both sides of roads for shades. They constructed “Head Weight Rest” canopies at every two km. pace distance. They flourished Devarais, Vanarais. Even today you can see such woodlands  beautifully managed by local people, where as Devarais denote the male status of Devaraya Royal Dynasty`s presence in Goa as rulers. While Vanarais make sure that they were the queens of the same dynasty. They were in exclusive use as a resting place for travellers. Such woodlands you will see provided with water facilities, sitting arrangements. They also constructed small shrines here. These shrines are always occupied by local gods and goddesses. The important prince of this dynasty who ruled Goa was Prince Naganna Naik under the strong reigns of Shrikrishna Devaraya at centre of Vijayanagara kingdom, its capital “Hampi” the metropolis. Prince Naganna Naik was the paternal uncle of His Highness Shrikrishna Devaraya.

Prince Naganna Naik was a peace loving character. He too constructed many towns, cities, temples, lakes and other big and small monuments. Vijayanagara kings knew well the importance of water resources. Prince Naganna was not an exception to this habitual. He renamed many places and monumental edifices in his dynasty`s and his king`s name. He also reconstructed many temples in Goa. It is very important to understand, he achieved all these fruitful and public safety works, though he was the supremo of the Goa state, where king Adilsha was Vijayanagara`s vassal king. Though a vassal king, he always kept a good relation with him, as far as progress of Goa was concerned. The reason why Goa always measures better than any state of India. He provided a better sense of rule here. He had kept a vision to propagate his dynasty`s name. So we find most of the names of monuments, temples roads, forts, rivers, canals and hundreds of miniatures. Such names always begin or end with Deva, Rai, Kulu, Kuru (representing goats in Kannada language), Tul or Tulu. Such places we can see are Raitur, Rai in Salcete, Deao palace, Devassa, Deacato at Quepem. Hemad Barcem, Bali Barcem (both were devoted names in their family) Kurpem, Kuruban or Kusban, Kulwado, Bheklewadi at Cuncolim. Rivers such as Kushawati, Talpan, Tilari, Tiswadi, Kurubali(Karamalli), Karai. Canals such as Curdi Canal, Kushawati Canal (Previous, the present dam is constructed on the same site). Lakes such as Rai Lake, Cudatali lake, Haravale fall. (This fall is named after Harihara Raya of Sangma dynasty) Dudhasagar fall (milk is always remaining a part and parcel of shepherd cult). Miniatures like Kanady Fator (Stone), Kanady Kond (Water pond within Kushawati flow very near to Devassa), Kanadi Purus, Hemad Devastan, Naganath miniature. You will find at least  few such names in every taluka reflects of Goa. Temple such as Ramnath temple at Zambaulim of  Goa`s Sangam or Sanguem taluka, refcets much more about its cultural history through an anecdotal tale. The said temple was constructed by shepherd king Devaraga II of Sangma Dynasty in A.D. 1406. The same was shifted from a small village by name Ramnath Moll, also a part of Sanguem taluka due to natural calamities over here to Zambaulim by its founder members of shepherd cult.

Here at Zambaulim, later on it came under a royal family dignity of shepherd cult by name Yamo or Yaman Naik. He belonged to Tulu or Tulva Dynasty. Vijayanagara kings had reputations, they were inborn builders. They brought Chandeshwara deity from Bagalkot Karnataka, under their own domain  with full devotion, installed the same at the high hills of Chandranath Mountain at Paroda, Quepem. The  temple is at a significant strategic point. The importance of this temple is so high that a royal dignity by name Bhuto Naik was deputed here as a full time guardian. He renovated the earlier one. For this  pious work he brought the stones and other material from “Hampi” their imperial and central capital,  which is considered as non-comparable ancient cities in the world. Shri Bhuto Naik had a vision to  transform, Chandranath Hills to compare it to “Hemakuta” Hills at “Hampi”. Hemakuta is full of variety, granite clusters, providing shelter to dozens of monuments and active deities. His constructive skills made him aware, Chandranath Hill is an easy better and safe elevation for temple construction. It is full  of life and full with material needed for constructions. The history says he started with this spiritual work. He constructed dozens of small and big temples all over the mountain. Unfortunately many of  them remained unfinished due to sudden demise of its pioneer Shree Bhuto Naik. His ideals and constructive concepts are even today attracting the attention of thousands. He had to bring and carry every material from distant places over this high elevation which is an alarming height to carry heavy material. But he was an ardent devotee of Lord Chandreshwara. As a mark of respect then `royal family joined his name to all time active deity as Chandranath Bhuto. Nath here it means leader. Bhuto Naik is then changed to Bhutnath. In Goa, it is invariable and everyone spells Chandreshwar as Chandrabhuto. There are many miniatures in Goa that assent this Bhutnath widely. He is also considered as a human messenger to Lord Chandreshwara.

Earlier during Sangma rule, you will see many caves in the name of Pandavas. Pandavas are always remaining in fame through the formidable epic Mahabharata. You will find their foot marks or prints and many gracious or tirthas over surpassing Chandranath Hills. Such spiritual emblems are also seen and  firmly are believed at Rivon of Sanguem taluka at Salcete taluka presently well known as Pandava Kopel. At village Choden of Tiswadi Taluka and also found at Haravalem of Bicholim Taluka. A special attention and importance is attached to the rivers in Indian history. Right from the ancient ages it is ever seen that there is no civilization in Indian history that does not find without the river playing the role at its helm. The Vijayanagara kings knew that well. So they had as well constructed their central capital “Hampi” the non comparable metropolis situated over the bank of pious river “Tunghabhadra”. Their rule while in Goa, they constructed a beautiful city in Tiswadi taluka by name Raibandar is a good example of it. It is presently a nice suburban at the bank of River Mandovi. Earlier during Vijayanagara rule it was a well to do port city. It was constructed previously by Sngma Dynasty ruler Devaraya II.  And then added to its glory further and new constructions including township of Raibandar. The renovation of the port here was carried out and fully accomplished by Prince Naganna Naik, the  Governor General of Goa. He belonged to Tulu or Tulva Dynasty under the kingship of Shrikrishna  Devaraya between A.D.1510 to A.D 1525. More importantly history says Prince Naganna Naik was the paternal uncle to His Kingship Shrikrishna Devaraya who ruled  Vijayanagara vast kingdom from A.D.1509 to A.D.1529.

Vijayanagara kings, primarily thirteen of them, who ruled this apex kingdom from A.D.1336 to A.D.1570. All this long period they ruled from their super metropolis “Hampi”. Except the pioneer king Harihara who ruled from “Anagondi” a village presently covered with crops, bushes and marshy land. Vijayanagara early kings were the predecesors of Rashtrakutas Royal Dynasty who were the masters of Deccan history in A.D.750 to A.D.973. Rashtrakutas it means Bhumiputras. They really were formidable rulers in Indian History. They ruled their kingdom from various capitals for security measure. They too ruled Goa and Konkan during this period keeping in mind the ability of their predecessors Vijayanagara kings knew well the importance of shelter, bread, water and devotion for their subject.

They constructed many townships, roads, canals, octagonal water tanks, temples and overall enhanced agriculture and cattle occupation. Goa being an important part of their kingdom was never lacked behind. Fortunately for Goa`s substantial history, presently which is little inadequate. But Vijayanagara wise kings impressed their mark by offering names of their dynasties, cult, occupation, and their own names including their queens, children and other royal dignitaries to different places, canals, temples  and palaces. So presently it remains a concrete presence of their bygone rule. They generally offered names of their accomplished projects in their dynasty names.This future optimistic concept really  carried Indian History more dimensions and fabulous. It gives clear picture of defiant origin.

This is a twin township of early history, presently a village in Salcete taluka. The name is based on two Indian illustrious royal dynasties namely Sangma and Tulu or Tulva. The first three alphabets denote king Devaraya II of Sangma dynasty and other three alphabets point out Tulu or Tulva Dynasty under His Kingship Shrikrishna Devaraya. Both these kings ruled Goa in A.D. 1422 to 1446 and in A.D. 1503 to 1529. Devaraya II first constructed a township by name “Rai” and later on Shrikrishna  Devaraya extended and renovated it during his reign. These villages are famous for their beautiful lakes, agriculture and for birds of different species. The villages are also famous for production of salt. The people here are also proud of their ancestors. Lake “Rai” is also famous and even a unique of its kind because history goes saying, that a royal newly married couple willingly embraced to watery grave here for the welfare of their subject in Goa. Better explained earlier in this book.

This ancient monument is situated at the bank of river Kushawati. It is a central part and more so, earlier even at the mid 19th century it was a well flourished market of Quepem or Chandrawadi taluka. The attractive monument is similar in every respect to that of Adilshaha palace at Panaji. It is important to note and believe both these age old constructions are still in tact. Though Deao palace is very much smaller to that of Adilshah palace, both these monuments were constructed and accomplished by vassal King Adilshaha under powerful King Shrikrishnadevaraya of Vijayanagara imperial empire, its capital at “Hampi”. He ruled from A.D.1509 to A.D.1530. When ascended the throne after the death of his father, His Kingship Shri Tapanna Naik, Shrikrishna Devaraya dispatched his own paternal uncle Prince Naganna Naik as the Governor General of Goa. As a senior member of the Tulu or Tulva Dynasty prince Naganna Naik enjoyed every power as a king under the central Lordship of his nephew Shrikrishna Devaraya. One of his sons was staying and functioning day to day matter as royal dignity of Deao palace. The palace was named after Shrikrishna Deva. Later on during Portuguese  regime in Goa, it was interpreted as “Deao”. The historical evidence here is, the palace is not a modern construction where one can date and place it in the 18th century. Interestingly Deao palace is situated at a distance of just about three kms away from village Ambaulim or Amyatal, the meaning is all the same here. It is nice to go through yet another anecdotal song attached to the royal family. It will give you a more clear picture, how much gloomy days those were.

आम्यातळा बोणकी वोळा 
थंय कित्या बाळा तू पावलेलोरे
म्हाझ्या मातेची सोलमुदी शेणल्या
सोदुन दि बाळा न्हयवळारे 

This melancholic song, even today is sung as a major recital at an annual festival called “Dhalo” utsava at the ancient village Amyatal or Amolem. During this festival as a part of old age celebration, “Rambhas” or Aphridots or sylphs call their brother to attend the celebration. But even today every year, it is seen the nimbling brother never comes out though seen nimbling inside the sacrosanctum of the temple unless he listens to the above mentioned song. It is very important to see all these nimbling
“Rambhas and their nimbling (Bhar) brother is between the age group of three to six years. Although the brother performs the act till twelve years. And the Rambhas before attaining maturity, they generally leave the things at the age of eight. Certainly even if they attend the ceremony after attaining maturity, it never inspires them to nimble. Such is the truth here. It is nice to see them when they tell you about your future and past life, good and bad happenings in your life. Dozens of people visit this place during this celebration to get spiritual advice.

The above lyrical anecdote widely speaks about a loving character by name “Bala”. The lyric laments and asks him why he had reached here. He was staying at a nice native place of his at “Amyatal” or “Amole” which is full of cactus plants by name “Bonaki”. It is a nice place for hide out. In his formidable answer, Prince Bala or Kusta Bala says, his mother`s “Solmudi” it means foot finger ring has lost at a place called “Nhai-voll” or a river tributary meet. It means he has lost his motherland. He wanted it to regain. Here it is clear, he went to Sangam or Sanguem taluka. River Sal here meets with yet another big stream. This meeting place is known as “Taripanto” at Sanguem. It is a nice place to see, you will also witness few tombs of Sangma Dynasty`s chieftains here. Little more information about Kusta Bala is better explained earlier in this book. During Dhalotsava at Amole, several times I have observed the folk dancers here (females) weeping while recitation of this age old spiritual song. Tears roll their cheeks when they remember their gallant prince who fought and slain by his Portuguese enemies in his own land. The village has such a faith towards their beloved prince and whole of the “Tulu or Tulva” royal dynasty.

The Dam at Quepem or Devawadi.Its is an attraction for the public

It is the largest taluka of Goa state among eleven small segments (Talukas) of Goa state. This huge segment is a history in itself. situated at the bank of river Sal. River Sal then meets yet another tributary at a place called “Taripanto”. The meet here is a beautiful sight. There is also a small shrine lying within the pious meet in the water. The general view of this big Taluka, seems as if it is within the lapses of westernghats fully at its eastern side. The history of this formidable taluka of Goa, dates back, as early as 7th century A.D. It is also very important in the Indian History, because the relevant evidence show, it is a native place for illustrious Royal Sangma Dynasty who ruled Vijayanagar kingdom for about 140 years or little more i.e. from 1338 A.D. to 1485A.D. One has also to keep in mind, that Sangma  Dynasty is the only dynasty whose first two kings namely Harihara and Bukka Raya were pure Goan sons, who rose to the rank as kings. No other Goa`s son has achieved this milestone till this date. Harihara and Bukka were brothers. They were the chieftains at Sangam or Sanguem prior to their becoming crowned kings at Anagondi first and later on at Hampi as their capital of Vijayanagara. Fortunately few historians say they were five brothers and considered themselves as “Pandavas” of  Indian epic fame Mahabharata. They belonged to shepherd cult. If you inutely watch the scattered  evidences then one can say this Goan shepherd family was staying and administrating their domain, either from “Ramnath Moll or from Mendhawadi of Sanguem taluka. Mehdhawadi it means Goat Palace.

The word Goat-Palace is much befitting to compare them with their shepherd cult. But both these places Ramnath Moll and Mendhawadi are directly linked to Sangma Dynasty. Early those days it was a twin township by name Ashtragriha – Hemadbarshem. But then Hemadbarshem, the word is directly linked to Kannada origin. It is quite reasonable to say it is named after Kadamba, Sulva or Tulu Dynasty rulers. All these rulers were Kannada rulers. But for a good argument Kadamba rulers ruled here much before even Sangma dynasty. So the name is changed only after Sulu or Tulva
Dynasties. But except for Kadamba Dynasty all these dynasties belong to shepherd cult. Kadambas were of potter cult. Hemadbarshem along with Ashtragriha was administered from “Kirlapala” as its headquarters. The chief of the present ruined fort here at Kirlapal was also a royal family prince by name Yamo Naik who was also an administrator of all Hindu temples in the vicinity of twin township Ashtragriha Hemadbarshem.
In religions but unfortunate fiasco, our ancestral tale remarks, during one of the important religious ceremonies at present Zambaulim Ramnath Damodar temple. The then Tulu Dynasty prince Yamo Naik felt himself offended here by hiding his spiritual stick. It was also a sign of dignity and power by some unknown culprits. This fiasco enraged prince Yamo Naik to such an extent, he termed it as a bad omen. He immediately ordered his army chief, Bhuto Naik to raze and bury all the temples at Sanguem, Zambaulim and Ambaulim. He also advised him to construct new ones at the same place by the same name and deities. Further he ordered to handover them to public committees. The same was done  without further delay. The reason why all these villages have “Fatlem and Fudlem Parv”. It means past and present epoch. Prince Yamo Naik then left village Zambaulim to village Ambaulim. His precedence then meaningfully called as Za-Ambaulim. Here it means, go to Ambaulim. In the same way at  Ambaulim it was Aambaulim means come to Ambaulim. It exactly means the beloved prince was offered a tearful goodbye at Zambaulim by his subject. It also means, a redcarpet welcome at  Ambaulim. He never forgot this awful incident at Zambaulim. So to remember it in the history, he renamed the razed and buried constructions as “Fatle Parva” and “Fudlem Parva”, to his newly constructed edifices. But as a mark of respect, even today, at Zambaulim Ambaulim and other nearby places “Fatlem Parva” is always at the helm of respect at first place during every religious ceremony.

Although prior to A.D.1330 Sangma Dynasty kings were the chieftains of Sanguem, vast taluka of Goa. But in A.D.1336 these chieftains by name Harihara and his younger brothers suddenly left Sanguem and formed a new kingdom called Vijayanagara kingdom. They named their dynasty as “Sangma Dynasty”. In early stages it was a small kingdom inclusive of some parts of Karnataka, Deccan plateau, Telangan and Maharashtra including Goa. It is needless to say, they were the natives of Goa state. Prince Marappa of this dynasty was the first ruler of Goa as a Goan ruler under Vijayanagara crown. After the death of prince Marappa no evidence is available whether Goa was ruled by a king like status or only as an Ambassador of the Vijayanagara empire till Tulu or Tulva Dynasty rule under Shrikrishna Devaraya existed in A.D. 1509. He sent his paternal uncle Naganna Naik as the Governor of Goa, alongwith a huge army mostly consisted of “Naikas” of Bidar who were brave fighters. They belong to Bhandary cult so never mix them with Shrikrishna Devaraya`s Tulu or Tulva dynasty that belonged to shepherd cult. Though prince Naganna Naik was deputed as a Governor of Goa, he enjoyed every power as a king. Their vassal king here was Adilshaha. The last kings who ruled Goa were of Arabhindu Dynasty Tirumal Vodiyar Jr. took charge and ascended the throne of Vijayanagara with a new capital at Penugonda as earlier metropolis Hampi was destroyed  and killed. Aliya Ramaraya, the chief of armed forces under last king of Tulu Dynasty Sadashiva Devaraya at Rakasa. Tangadgi in Jan. 1565.

It is a prominent historical township,that emerged as a main religious and administrative centre during  the reigns of Vijayanagara kings who ruled from “Hampi” as their capital metropolis. This township even today is full of spiritual heights decorated with hundreds of big and small temples throughout Phonda taluka. All these old temples are provided with Dravidian art and miniatures. The eyecatching monuments also have better glares of Vijayanagara culture. Fortunately for Goan Historians, there is a formidable information regarding Phonda township. This name is derived from a royal ancestor Phondu  Naik. He belonged to Tulu or Tulva Dynasty. The pioneer king of this dynasty Naras Naik or Naique who ruled Vijayanagara empire during A.D. 1486 to 1503 from Hampi as its capital. This dynasty previously was known as “Kanneri Kurubal Dynasty”.

Phondu Naik was the royal descendant of Naganna Naik of this dynasty. Prince Naganna Naik ruled Goa as a Governor General from A.D.  1507 to 1533 under Shrikrishna Devaraya`s reign as a Tulu Dynasty King of Vijayanagara. The historical evidence clearly mentions there is no king who ruled Goa or other parts of India who  belonged to Goan posterity except Sangma Dynasty`s seven illustrious rulers who were the natives of Sangam or Sanguem taluka. Though Tulu or Tulva Dynasty kings were the natives of Konkan region,   their mother tongue being Tulu Language they joined it to their own royal dynasty when they assumed the throne and proudly called themselves as “Tulvas”. They belonged to shepherd cult of Karnataka. Vijayanagara kings here in Goa, never remained vassal kings nor they were subsidiaries of any such big emperors. They always followed their own central rule at Hampi. Rather their own vassal kings were Adilshahi princes. They had also many subsidiary leaders in Goa and in Konkan. Fortunately for Goa  and its longlasting history Vijayanagara kings never subdued before any power. They fought till the end of their life as independent emperors. Few families in Goa today boast of their ancestral dignity as royal posterity. They must not forget, it is they who (their ancestors) with their antinational approach to surrender before Portuguese missionaries for feudal powers made every prince connected to Vijayanagara for starvation. It is continuing till this date. Instead you boast as big royal houses of Goa. Never knowing, you are offending the bloods of your every prince. No one can change history. You must feel ashamed of your ancestors, who knelt down before Portuguese missionaries for a piece of land, that would fetch you a fat taxation. But at what cost? Unfortunately at the cost of royal blood.   Township Phonda was renamed after Phondu Naik of Tulu Dynasty. Vijayanagara empire came to an end in A.D.1676. When Maratha leader Shivaji Bhosle and “Naiques” of Bidar alongwith half a dozon muslim princes joined their hands to outstretch the Vijayanagara empire. The Cuncolim Salcete Martyr Memorial will provide a better picture of Vijayanagara princes. The very names here are full of truth.

This village presently is a part of Bicholim taluka of Goa state. The village is also known as Devachal or Devatali. Both these names are directly linked to Devarayas of Vijayanagara empire. The village is very famous as a well behaved grace to departed souls. Presently it is the busiest place for such unorthodox behaving that according to some fanatic people serves as heaven to departed souls. You will see dozens of Brahamins (Hindu Priests) performing rituals for the benefit of departed souls. Presently the place is just functioning as an epitome to earn money even in the name of ghosts. The important places here are 1) Rudreshwara Temple 2) Bhimakund 3) Haravalem Fall 4) And Caves, that are carved within a big sedimentary hillock like rock. They are called by a popular name Pandava Caves. But overall examination tells you here that the caves are very much modern compared to historical Pandava epoch that according to Indian mythology dates back to more than five thousand years.

Haravali it means *Hariyalli* an evergreen herb used as a medicinal herb and on spiritual occasions in Hindu religion. The name it seems is derived from the pioneer king Harihara Raya. Harihara it also means evergreen. The caves here also it seems will remain evergreen. Only a careful approach is a need of time to preserve such glories. Village Haravalem being a part of Bicholim or Devachal taluka, it is clear, this township was constructed by either Devaraya I or his son Devaraya II of Sangma Dynasty. These kings ruled Goa from A.D.1377 – 1422 but the archaeological survey (A.S.I.) here, mentions the date of these formidable sculptures carved within a huge hillock of sedimentary, laterite stone nature, dates back to A.D.6th century. A.S.I. also mentions, the dates are carved in “Bhrahmi” script. It is interesting to see, this ancient language has a long time domain in Indian history as an official language. One cannot mention it under a single king or even a period of hundred odd years. It nearly carried itself for a thousand years. The date here of course is based on written facts. But the clear scene here is, it is not that ancient a monument. The workmanship here is definitely more modern, attractive and with a polite finish overall compared to such other monumental spheres dating back to A.D. 1st to A.D. 10th century. The laterite stone compared to other hard rocks, is a soft rock. One cannot mould it out with a rough weapon, else it will never reach to desired shape. But these caves here are perfectly brought under desired shape. It is relevant they look alike to a little modern day finish. There are no rough gaps, as it is likely to do in other such cases with an ancient tool, during 5th to 7th century A.D. I must not go against Archaelogical survey of India (A.S.I.). But I can assure you, it is due to date mixing situation. There are many calendars in Indian history by different kings. This particular inscription in “Bhrahmi” script is more likely to be a date from Mahamad Paighambar calendar of Islam religion. Islamic calendar today shows its date as A.D.1431. If the artist of these caves belongs to Islam then they definitely will go for their own calendar. If this is true then the dates  showing here in “Bhrahami” language, it roughly comes to A.D. 1300. Considering it is true then the king under whose rule, it is accomplished is the king Harihara I of Sangma Dynasty. King Harihara Raya ruled Goa from A.D. 1338 as a king of Vijayanagara Empire and earlier as a chieftain administrator of many parts of Goa. The caves are also situated at an ancient village Haravalem. It also means Harihara.

Asking for further more information within the peaceful cave where lies the spiritual Shri Shankara Linga.
During their life time, Sangma Brothers considered themselves as five Pandavas, the heroes of Hindu epic of immense value “Mahabharata”, they too were five brothers to name 1) Harihara Raya 2) Bukka Raya 3) Kepanna Raya 4) Marappa Raya and Mudanna Raya. Prince Marappa and then his descendants ruled Goa for many years until it came under Bahamani Sultan in A.D. 1485. But then Tulu or Tulva Dynasty`s and altogether Vijayanagara`s strongest of the emperor Shrikrishna Devaraya again annexed it to Vijayanagara kingdom, defeating Bahamani Sultan. During the time of Devaraya I, the caves it seems were constructed because overall look here, show you, it is an  unfinished monument. Regarding its such undoing, history goes saying, the last of the brothers of still ruling Sangma dynasty died, then Devaraya I who undertook the construction work thought it as bad omen and stopped the construction. One can clearly see, the top portion where only at a side, there is a decorative pocket, rectangular in shape. It is to install the idols as a part of attractiveness. But at the other side it is observed plain. In one of the caves facing Haravalem temple at east side is also unfinished. Only eight circular bases to install circular bodies one can see here inside of it. If all these bases are for Ashtragrilha or planets to install on then why they are not finished? The very absence of Ashtragrihas prove the construction is unfinished. These types of Ashtragrihas you will see at a temple in Sanguem Taluka at “Keri” village. But here the Ashtragrihas are not installed within circular bases but are seated on a plain place and seem to be our solar system. It is also important here to watch a fabulous art through an idol of a goddess by name Daxin Devata or Deccan Devata. Considering Daxin it means Southern and Deccan kingdom also lies in South India. It is simple to understand it is related to Vijayanagara empire.

An edifice carved within a sedimentary rock hillock at “Haravalem” of Divachal Taluka of Goa state. The super carving is known as “Pandava caves”. The author asking for information from locals .

A Front view of Pandava caves

Myths or truths, let it take its own course in the minds of readers but one thing is absolutely right that Vijayanagara kings believed in cult of Hanuman. The reason may be, they themselves belong to shepherd cult. Hanuman cult too with a big mystery is shown as a backward class and not even fully grown up human being. Although they were mystically courageous, clever and brave warriors. There is every reason to believe, while during an unfortunate and drastic Volteface change in four varnas, only a prejudice against brave ones, this monkey cult might have been formed only to malign their brave image in public. Leave about historical evidence such things as calling human souls, an indecent animal cult, never fits even to myths and mysteries. Vijayanagara kings knew this well. So in contrast, they respected this cult, bygone and their present time. Other wise it is not easy to challenge any royal orders for prejudice around. If you call them monkeys okay, but kings believe them as deities, shut up and get lost. Also first two Sangama rulers strangely enough minted their coinage with the figure of Hanuman.

Enhancing devotion to Hanuman cult, later on never came down. It further spurted during the Tulva period again of Kanneri Kurubal Dynasty. They even projected Veer Hanumana to a five headed deity of immense power and probity. During Shrikrishna Devarayas powerful reign, he installed the image of Yantroddhara Hanuman at Chakratirtha a prominent grace at Hampi. So it means the king wanted to show Hanuman as the father of even modern Universe to support every above word, presently as many as fifty temples you will count at Hampi Metropolis and as many as 732 images of monkey cult. Anegondi, previous capital of Sangama rulers, constructed a dozen Hanuman temples here. Even today plastic art of monkey cult play a big role in India's economy with playing toys all over. Mind me our ancestry says on this, they never were monkeys, on the other hand they were clever, obedient, respectful and brave warriors. It is only the self styled minds of Brahamin clerics who never wanted to achieve but only wanted to deceive. But great Vijayanagara kings foiled their criss-cross attitude.

Whoever constructed and accomplished this marvel of structures will always remain in the hearts of people in general, such is the immense attraction. If you view this exemplary monument little away from it, then you will feel, five evergreen Lotus crowns atop beckoning you, as if they want to tell you, we are waiting for our princes to crown them, now forever. It is perfectly a square structure with an upper storey. The basement of it, is best of the Hindu culture while Islamic monumental elements in artisan. At base the multi-arched designed doors, a sloping eave to protect visitors from rain waters and heat. The impressive lotus shaped towers, they look like crowns, arrest every good attention. Flora and fauna designs over multi-lobbed domes are the highlights of bygone artist of India. The ground floor of the palace where most visitors prefer to stay and chat for a while is standing on twenty four massive piers (big pillars). The massive ground floor thus has thirteen magnificent doors. There is also a door comparatively small, fourteenth one is used for a staircase to climb to reach 2nd floor. The sloping eaves, that are supported by corbels hundreds of them even atop second floor windows is even today will remain a dream for engineers. They offer more than enough support and beauty to this super monument. The total construction is based on Islamic style. This structure more or less looks like a pavilion for recreation for royal family. There is also a water pond here and whole building is without any spiritual idol. The climate here is also hot during summer, so these types of spacious pavilions were a need of the time. It is beyond doubt, this evergreen monument even today looks like a multipurpose centre. It appears to be a power, pleasure and safety to royal dignity.

Lotus Mahal
It is one of the most celebrated monuments at Hampi. The basement of it is a Hindu art. But
Over all atop it is an Islamic superstructure. It was used as a recreation centre for the royal family members. Even today it is a pleasant place.

It is rightly described by none other than European historians, Hampi the metropolis, the splendid capital city of bygone Vijayanagara kingdom. The colossal metropolis in ruins today speaks that vibrantly. Very little interest is shown by our knowledgeable historians and other govt. institutions compared to those other monumental ancient fabrics in India. You will see many little lesser glamorous antiques are more applauded and adorned. The reason behind this imbalance is presently a total surprise to any good student of history.

Metropolis Hampi is full of townships and suburbs. Let us first go through townships. They are called “Puras” here.
1)Virupakshpura: This township is attractively planned. Its extent lies within southern edge of pious river Tungabhadra. Famous Virupaksha temple is a main attraction.
2)Achutpura: This township is named after the Tulu or Tulva Dynasty King Shri Achuta Devaraya. This township lies its authenticity towards the eastern side of Virupaksha temple.
3)Vithalpura: was built under Devaraya II. It falls under northern corner of Achutpura. More interestingly all these townships fall under Tunghabhadra`s stretching bend.

The Vijaya Vithala Temple and a Stone chariot
These two extraordinary cultures in constructive skills are seated over a large and tiled fitted ground. The chariot here it seems fitted on tiles. But if you look minutely, then earlier it was on the ground and was movable.

Kalyan Mantapa attached to vithal Temple

4)Krishnapura: was built by the illustrious king of Indian history Shrikrishna Devaraya of Tulu Dynasty A.D.1509- 1529. It is very near to Virupakshpura little south but at the exact south of Hemakuta foot. Vijayanagara it means not only metropolis of Hampi but is a vast mother city of dozens of townships. The whole complex is then called as Vijayanagara or a city of tranquillity or victory. Its extent is about five six kilometers.

Pushkarni Tali with its attractive surroundings.
The water supply to this big pond is made by a lengthy half rectangular granite stone blocks using them as water canals. They are nicely placed (fitted) on rectangular pillars. River Tungabhadra is a source of water.
5)Kamalapura: The other important townships here are Kamalapura presently an inhabited place, lies towards the eastern side of Virupakshapura, very near about one km.
6)Varadpura or Varadadevipura: is also situated at immediate north-east of Kamalapura. Please note both these townships are named after the queens of the reigning time. For more delight all these townships are demarcated with canals, hillocks, rivers, orchards and water reservoirs. The maps here show clear picture.

The rulers of Vijayanagara were conscious of the rapid growth of their capital. The planners here provide more than sufficient evidence of this fact. The vastness of the metropolis is around 6 square km. And much to the surprise of a history student today, the place was reserved by constructing big gardens and orchards, that helped them later on when they enlarged their capital according to populous need. Suburban cities here are demarcated by such gardens, canals and portion of river Tunghabhadra.
1)Malapanagundi: This suburban lies to the south-west of Kamalapura. It is about six km. from the eastern border of tank city Kamalapura. Presently it is in ruins and covered by plants and trees. Few houses (new) are also seen.
2)Nagalpura : It was a twin city by name Anantpura and Singundi. It is about eight km. from  Virupaksha market of “Hampi” (main). Other suburbans are Anantasyumgundi and Tirumalupura presently under waters of Tungabhadra Dam. All these urbans and suburbans were it seems named after the timely ruler or his family deity. Shri Krishna Devaraya and Achutadevaraya of Tulu Dynasty built most for these monumental places from 1509 to 1542.

Virupaksha Temple:
Virupaksha temple at Hampi the metropolis is a mute living testimony of the Vijayanagar King Devaraya II A.D.1422-46. The street where this bonafide magnificence stands is also known as Virupaksha street or chariot street. It is lengthy one, about little less then a km. The width of the street is also eyecatching. It is even today, one of the busiest cities of ancient origin. It lies within eastern side of the Virupaksha Temple. According to the historical evidence available Lord Virupaksha possesses two big chariots. During festivals, Lord it says comes alive in to these chariots.

Lord Virupaksha it is promptly believed was the super protector of the empire, River Tunglabhadra as an effective aid and mountain Hemakuta as its divine gateway.
Lord Virupaksh Temple
It is a main temple. It also remained family deity of Vijayanagara rulers. It is fabulous in height, multi storey, wonderfully beautiful decorated with series of art, it describes whole of the Indian mythology in every side of it.
Hemakuta, a museum of Temples:
Tulu Dynasty ruler Shrikrishna Devaraya 1509-1529 is responsible to convert this, practically a barren hillock, to a fabulous monumental centre. One can term it as an emporium of big and small temples and monoliths. This hillock is simply a wonder. The king wanted to create a heaven here it seems. The history goes saying, the efficient King Shrikrishna Devaraya assembled most of these edifices idols from peninsular India. Though he constructed many of them of his own. They are Anantasyayana, Nagasayana and Raghunatha. He too migrated Vithala of Pandharpura. He also constructed Krishna temple as his cult Deity of Yadava Amsha.
There is a nice looking, attractive in every way to the south of Hemkuta Hill, Hampi, a construction known as Shree. Gayatri Peetha. Opposite to this exemplary monument, there is a small square canopy, within it, seated the universal lord Ganesha.
The Laximinarsimha Monolith:
This extravaganza monolith a unique of its kind in whole of South India, lies between Lord Krishna and Virabhadra Temples. It is the biggest consecrated image found at Hampi, it is undoubtedly the magnificent wonder among carved monoliths. It is more than six meters in height. This monolith has few parallels in Indian monumental designs. The deity presently in pathetic and totally unaired  conditions.Some portion of it has broken. Its present site is found mutilated within a roofless monument in ruins. This wonderful carving was authorized by none other than Shrikrishna Devaray in A.D.1529. The last year of his illustrious regime who then resigned as a king and placed his infant son on the throne under the guardianship of Aliya Ramaraya, his brother-in-law.

This unique monolith, neglected, exposed to different types of deviations for last five hundred years, speaks a big tale of its own. It is colossal in size. Lord Narasimha you will observe sitting on the threefold cobra coil fully round in shape. It is mystical king cobra of mythology protecting the aural head of the Lord in addition to a cosy seat provided. This type of special history I never come across in my whole historical research life. I am quite a lucky person to have a glance on it. The monolith purely symbolises a perfect opera that is constructed to heighten the status of defendant God Lord Vishnu. Many small and big temples here I saw desecrated while others are preserved very nicely. It surprised me because they are sometimes very very close to each other and even some of them adjoining. Four varnas, later when came into force by slicing away the earlier four varnas of Dravidian culture, the ethnic political might be the result of this inhuman act. The new four Varnas came in to force in A.D.1400. Historical evidence is availed in form of several anecdotal fables. One of such fables in our family goes saying, one day a saint while bathing early hours of the morning found a book, floating in the river water. It came to him. It further says the water never damaged it. But the volume found legible and in tact condition. It contained all four new Varnas. Their Powers and duties, social, culture and political life of people. This is the same book recognized by the people as Manu’s script. But the book found in A.D 1400 century only  changed the earlier four Varnas and included names directly from shudra Varna mentioned and practiced during this time into new present Varnas.
This spirit is a unique of its kind. It is seated over a five poisonhydrafacial king cobra. Presently, it is without any shed over it.This idol is wonderfully fearful.
1) Bhoomi Putras:
This Varna was considered and respected as a top savarna class. They performed all spiritual duties, religious rituals and rites. Some of them still practice it. They were also agriculturists and specialists in medicine magic and lyrical field. They too lure historians. They were rich people. They sometimes found and ruled as kings. They were kind people.Even today they are.

2) Godhan:
 This was a shepherd class. This class was named as royal class. They tamed domestic animals and even converted wild animals to domestic animals. They were courageous people. They became imperial powers as they were incharge of cattle, milk and flesh. They also were agriculturists and zoom cultivators. They were super planners and designers. They ruled in a big way, India from B.C.400 to A.D.1672

3) Ghore Kumbar:
An ancient business faculty which provides people with utensils and steel work. Five percent of total kings belong to this upper class.

4) Ashweta Varna:
Everyone knows about this Varna even today. They always remained untouchables, without any good reason to mention except our own pride.

Lord Vishnu compact gold idol, measuring four feet, in height is an impressive part of huge treasure opened at Tiruvanantpuram in present Kerala state of Indian union. The countless attraction in pure yellow metal (Gold) and precious stones in rainbow colours was earlier staged and deposited here at Padmanabh Swami (Considered as the incarnation of Lord Vishnu) Temple.

In first place it ought the duty of every Indian to salute the efficient defence of  Travancore Royal Family. More so to His Highncss Swati Tirumal Rama Varma and present living legend His Highness Tirumal Martad Varma. Presently he is the real occupant of this huge treasure. It is easy to talk and eat, more so
if it is found free.
1) According to our family chart, anecdotal tales of the Vijayanagara History.
2) A book by name History of Civilization.
3) And a book titled “Awakening India to India”. I try to write the following true events. When in the year Jan. A.D. 1565 at Rakkasa. Tangadgi the last Tulu Dynasty ruler, Sadashiva Devaraya was utterly defeated by joint forces of Naiques of Bidar, Palghar, major muslim princes and even antinational and looters. Two military Generals Venkatadri and Tirumala Deva, along with their defeated king
Sadashiva Devarya fled away with huge treasure boarding it over twenty-eight elephants. They took shelter in Kerala, a small hamlet called “Penukonda” their own state (Vassal king) capital. But unfortunately for Vijayanagara Empire the two brothers Venkatadri and Tirumal slain their age old king and formed a new
dynasty by name “Aravidus Dynasty.”. For prince Tirumala it was not an easy cake walk to protect the huge treasure the biggest of the hauls on earth those days. He had many enemies to follow for this treasure. So he decided to hide this treasure in Travancore at Padmanabh temple. His own dynasty “Aravidus” ruled
Vijayanagara for about 140 years History goes saying these kings ruled only with the help of money power.

Golden Idol of Lord Vishnu
A Watch Tower
Ancient coin collection by Shri. Chaturanand Datta Shetkar
H. No. 42, Cotto Amona, Quepem is a series of coinage collection from A.D. 1510 to 1961 of Portuguese govt. The other important coins belong to the regime of Tipu Sultan, Adilshaha, kadamba, East India Company 1808 to 1835, unnamed Karnataka kings from A.D. 1300 to A.D. 1672. Italian old coins, Japan, Deccan, and different types of old medals. Special occasion coins of India after independence and a magnificent arrow. Shetkar families here at Amona, Quepem, always say, their ancestors were serving at the court of Vodiyar Kings of Bangaluru on prestigious posts. In this figure at least it looks true.

Map showing Goa's conquests by Portuguese regime step by step. The red marked territory in A.D. 1510. yellow marked territories in A.D. 1600. and later on they conquered whole of Goa. They left Goa after a humiliating defeat at the hands of India military in A.D. 19th December, 1961.

Queens Bath, a memorable bathroom cum water game ground for Queens of Vijayanagara and other royal family females. It is note worthy to say, only the crown king was allowed here to see royal dams bath, no other male person was allowed. The water here is brought from an unknown place, from river Tungbhadra. Till this date it is a big mystery. Queens Bath was constructed during the reign of Devaraya II and renovated during Shrikrishna Devaraya rule.

His Kingship, Swati Tirumala Rama Varma Travancore Ruler

Foreign traders constantly visited Vijaynagara Kingdom, bounded
by three Oceans. The Sangma literature remarks.

A silver designed knife, an unidentified monolith, mint remains, horse shoe and a lock with keys in tact. The carved impressive image is that of goddess MahaLaxmi. It definitely serves as an ancient relic in our family. Our family history goes saying, “every sin has to ask for a permission from this high potential spirit to enter the house”. Even today it is firmly believed.

The first side of this old coin shows four languages Telugu, Tamil, Mallyalam and Kannada. They are indicating a single currency unit. “Six Prataks.” prataks are a popular coinage units during Vijayanagara rule in Goa. The other side of the same coin is a mixture of Urdu and Persian language. It is very interesting to read few alphabets in Roman language may be Portuguese.


1) A coin from 13th century during the regins of prince Mohmmed Shah Khilji who rulled from Delhi  as his capital by the name Delhi Sultan from A.D.1296 to A.D.1316 or Islamic 696 to 716
2) Hoshang Royal Dynasty coin, this dynasty ruled Malwa Kingdom from A.D.1405-1432 the coin was termed as half taka. Its capital at Ahmadnagar.
3) A coin from Murtiza Nizam administration called “one falus”. Who rulled from Ahamadnagar from 1009 to 1019 Islamic and from A.D.1600 to A.D.1610

Coinage that includes, a Portuguese dateless coin. Our anecdotal history says it was in A.D. 1525 when Portuguese sailors were driven out by the Vijayanagara Army to settle down at a small seaside land strip of land by name “Bhatakal” in Karwar District of Karnataka. The successful mission was carried out by none other than Naganna Naik under the Kingship of Shrikrishna Devaray as a governor general in Goa in A.D. 1526.The other coins are East India company, an old coin of Italia, a coin from far east and other Portuguese and English coins.

A Temple with musical Pillars.
The whole square is a palacial complex.

Virupaksha Street

The Dynastic chart of Vijayanagara rulers with the royal insignia. To the right side seen is the auther  of this book

A passage leading towards dense forest. It is much mysterious, but easy to pass.

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